Bishop's Challenge
               Educational Resources

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1839

Unable to raise support among leaders of the Pennsylvania Lutheran Synod, the Rev. Jehu Jones loses the mortgage on his Black congregation’s building

1890’s

Rise of Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and remove economic gains made by Blacks during Reconstruction

1921

Tulsa, OK riots wipe out vibrant Black area of city, a major setback for Tulsa’s Black population.

1944-1956

The GI Bill failed to compensate Black veterans of WWII the same as Whites.

1950 - today

Redlining used by lenders to restrict Black ownership in certain areas of American cities